Electroplating Activation and Agitation AOTCO Metal
Sep 15, 20140183;32;Two areas often overlooked when electroplating are activation and agitation. Both activation and agitation are a key part of the processes and shouldnt be overlooked. Simply put, activation is just the removal of an oxide layer that forms on the surface of the metal.
Usually 2 to 3 hours agitation is adequate to complete the reaction depending upon acid strength and other factors. The barren solution is held in the agitator until the copper cement settles and is then transferred to the barren solution tank. The copper cement can be removed at the end of each cycle or after several cycles of operation.
Agitated Leach Process Provides Optimal Recovery and
The ores are then placed in an agitated tank for leaching of copper oxides with weak sulphuric acid. Testwork has indicated 84% recovery of total copper with leach times of 16 to 18 hours; however, the addition of waste heat from the sulphuric acid plant could further reduce the leach times.
Effect of Ultrasonic Agitation during Electroplating of
copper pyrophosphate bath (Fig. 5). Additionally, a bright, smooth deposit is obtained for current densities of up to 120 Nft2 with ultrasonic agitation, whereas the deposits become dull and rough at less than 40 A/ftz without such agitation. A similar trend is seen with nickel, the limit for a bright, smooth